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Self-Driving Cars: Future Of Authentication Protocols

Whereas most online services today are already relying on various authentication, user verification, and fraud prevention options, the best of which utilize secure multi-factor authentication protocols, AV driver identity authentication is lagging behind.

Self-Driving Cars: Future of Authentication Protocols

Recently, many scholars proposed different types of encryption and authentication algorithms and Finite State Machines (FSMs) to obtain secure communication and routing protocols such as SAODV and ARAN [4], but however, these types of secure routing protocols do not have the ability to resist internal attacks, where the attacker is already based in the VANET, such as Sybil attack. This has motivated the design of a hierarchical IDS to secure VANETs presented here.

The adoption of both authentication and encryption schemes are considered a strong first layer of defence whilst IDS can form a second layer of defence against intruders [17]. Intrusion prevention can be utilised to enhance the defence capability of such networks, but these mechanisms often suffer from drawbacks such as high costs of implementation and limited coverage to prevent attacks [18]. Thus the nature of communications in self-driving vehicles requires technologies such as intrusion detection (IDS) that are integrated with monitoring and tracking systems to detect any abnormal behaviour.

Abstract:The amalgamation of Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) with the Internet of Things (IoT) leads to the concept of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). IoV forms a solid backbone for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), which paves the way for technologies that better explain about traffic efficiency and their management applications. IoV architecture is seen as a big player in different areas such as the automobile industry, research organizations, smart cities and intelligent transportation for various commercial and scientific applications. However, as VANET is vulnerable to various types of security attacks, the IoV structure should ensure security and efficient performance for vehicular communications. To address these issues, in this article, an authentication-based protocol (A-MAC) for smart vehicular communication is proposed along with a novel framework towards an IoV architecture model. The scheme requires hash operations and uses cryptographic concepts to transfer messages between vehicles to maintain the required security. Performance evaluation helps analyzing its strength in withstanding various types of security attacks. Simulation results demonstrate that A-MAC outshines other protocols in terms of communication cost, execution time, storage cost, and overhead.Keywords: authentication; internet of vehicles; intelligent transportation systems; security; vehicular Ad hoc networks

The private key is a secret known only to the owner and is used to encrypt messages, while the receiving node uses the corresponding public key to decrypt and authenticate the sender node. Through this encryption and decryption, we can avoid cyber-attacks easily and prevent the network from wrong guidance. After validating the request and the competencies of the roadside unit, the TA allows a vehicle to join the network through many phases which are system setup, registration, login, and dynamic node addition after the authentication process [45]. IoV security challenges require complicated security techniques to avoid hijacking and other incidents by adding measures like route modification as part of the RP security [46]. Access control is one of the oldest methods for security purposes, which plays a vital role in controlling cybersecurity attacks in the IoV environment. In the configuration of a new vehicle, the services of access control are much considered as a mechanism aiming to reduce unauthorized access in the IoV. Some of the access controls are based on static methods such as role-based access control (RBAC) and attribute-based access control (ABAC). Therefore, after the node allows access, the authorization continues. Other more advanced access controls adopt dynamic schemes [47]. If an attacker tries to violate the privacy policy of the network or data through RSU, the privacy preservation protocols act in the prevention of the system from being attackers. According to the analyst, vehicle pseudonyms will last long if they communicate through trusted authorities, and it will get a shorter life cycle if the vehicle pseudonyms communicate through nontrusted authorities [48]. Two types of intrusion detection systems exist which are local and global intrusion detection. Some research promotes intrusion prevention rather than a detection strategy for better security protection, while for motivated attackers, real-time intrusion detection is highly appreciated [35].

At NTT Secure Platform Laboratories, we are researching and developing security evaluation techniques that assess the resilience of vehicles to cyber-attacks, and countermeasures to attacks at each of the four security levels described above. As examples of security evaluation techniques and countermeasures, we introduce an attack at Level 3 that induces improper behavior in the LIN protocol and the countermeasures to this kind of attack. We also introduce some examples of our research into safety evaluation techniques and countermeasures for immobilizer authentication protocols related to Level 4 security.

There are two patterns for authentication protocols of this type: unilateral authentication, where the vehicle authenticates the key, and bilateral authentication, where the vehicle and key authenticate each other. We showed that it is possible to identify the secret key in a practical amount of time when using a unilateral authentication scheme, and that key extraction is also possible when using bilateral authentication, depending on factors such as the number of electronic key fobs that are available. We also proposed countermeasures to the proposed attack method such as performing a preliminary comparison of the encryption results calculated using each secret key in order to check for any changes in the key values.

It is expected that many more functions will be needed in order to implement the self-driving cars and connected cars of the future. In line with this trend, we can expect that the attack surfaces (attack paths) of vehicles will become broader, and that attack methods will become more advanced. At NTT Secure Platform Laboratories, we will continue with R&D relating to the security of in-vehicle networks and automotive systems, and we will provide cyber-attack countermeasures necessary to keep the next generation of vehicles safe and secure. We will also contribute to the realization of vehicle security services that work together with cloud services and a secure communication infrastructure that connects in-vehicle systems with external systems.

Despite the risks, however, computer systems are steadily becoming more autonomous. In the future, companies that develop systems for self-driving vehicles and industrial robotics will need experts to protect their products against hackers.

Abstract: In view of emerging applications from autonomous driving to health monitoring, it is very likely that a large part of machine learning (ML) services in the near future will take place over wireless networks, and conversely, a large part of wirelessly transmitted information will be related to ML. As data generation increasingly takes place on devices without a wired connection, ML over wireless networks becomes critical. Many studies have shown that traditional wireless protocols are highly inefficient or unsustainable to support distributed ML services. This is creating the need for new wireless communication methods, specifically on the medium access control and physical layers, that will be arguably included in 6G. In this tutorial, we plan to give a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art wireless methods that are specifically designed to support ML services. Namely, over-the-air computation and physical and medium access control layer optimized for supporting ML. In the over-the-air approach, multiple devices communicate simultaneously over the same time slot and frequency band to exploit the superposition property of wireless channels for gradient averaging over-the-air. In physical and medium access control layer optimized for ML, active learning metrics guide the allocation of spectrum and energy resources for faster or more accurate ML. This tutorial introduces these methods, reviews the most important works, and highlights crucial open problems.

Abstract: Authentication is a process for a system to verify the identity of a user who wishes to access the system. In a mobile wireless communication network, authentication is the first security mechanism that always be deployed to control the access of the network, so that only legitimate users or devices can be allowed to access the network and to use the services. This tutorial presents the evolutions of the authentication protocols for mobile wireless communication networks. It starts with the 2nd generation GSM authentication protocol, to 3rd generation UMTS and 4th generation LTE authentications. The tutorial will conclude with an overview for the next generation 5G and beyond system authentication approaches. The history of development of authentication protocols and lessons learnt for wireless network security designs will be presented.

Abstract: While 5G is being deployed around the world, the efforts and initiatives from academia, industry, standard bodies have started to look beyond 5G, conceptualize 6G mobile wireless networks, and propose various 6G promising candidate techniques. While it is widely recognized that various multimedia services such as video/audio streaming and even 3D immersive-media (e.g., XR - AR/MR/VR) will continue dominating the wireless traffics in 6G networks, how to efficiently support statistical delay and error-rate bounded QoS provisioning for wireless multimedia transmissions over 6G remains one of the most difficult challengers because real-time big-data multimedia services are both highly spectrum-/computation-intensive and time-sensitive, for which the deterministic delay-bounded guarantee is practically infeasible due to randomly time-varying wireless channels and interferences. To overcome these difficulties, the academia and industry have made a great deal of efforts in developing various 6G promising candidate techniques from the perspectives of theory, architectures, protocols, techniques, etc. Towards this end, in this speech we will address the 6G's fundamental pillar techniques, including information-centric network (ICN), network functions virtualization (NFV), and software defined networks (SDN), Edge Artificial Intelligence (Edge-AI), Cell-Free massive MIMO (CF m-MIMO), Finite Blocklength Coding (FBC), Terahertz (THz) Wireless Nano-Networks, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Intelligent Reflecting Surface (IRS), etc., and how these techniques can be integrated to efficiently support the statistical delay and error-rate bounded QoS provisioning for wireless multimedia transmissions over 6G mobile wireless networks. Furthermore, we will also discuss several future research directions and challenges in the general areas for 6G mobile wireless networks. 041b061a72

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